Tadmur) is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria.
Archaeological finds date back to the Neolithic period, and the city was first documented in the early second millennium BC.
During the Syrian Civil War in 2015, Palmyra came under the control of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), and subsequently changed hands several times between the militant group and the Syrian Army who retook the city on 2 March 2017.
ISIL sabotaged many artifacts and destroyed a number of buildings, considerably damaging the ancient site.
Regarding the restoration, the discoverer of Ebla, Paolo Matthiae, stated that: "The archaeological site of Palmyra is a vast field of ruins and only 20-30% of it is seriously damaged.
The queen was careful not to provoke Rome, claiming for herself and her son the titles held by her husband while guaranteeing the safety of the borders with Persia and pacifying the Tanukhids in Hauran.
The city's inhabitants worshiped local Semitic deities, Mesopotamian and Arab gods.
By the third century AD, Palmyra was a prosperous regional center reaching the apex of its power in the 260s, when Palmyrene King Odaenathus defeated Persian Emperor Shapur I.
The king was succeeded by regent Queen Zenobia, who rebelled against Rome and established the Palmyrene Empire.
In 273, Roman emperor Aurelian destroyed the city, which was later restored by Diocletian at a reduced size.